China, which relied on agriculture, was one of the destitute countries with its huge number of disadvantaged population thirty years ago. Development of the People’s Republic of China was unexpected within the last ten years. Now each Chinese individual takes advantage of this development which commenced in 1980. China laid a foundation for today’s development by constructing water reservoirs, irrigation systems, and highways.
After the 1970s of the last century, the number of poor people decreased to 700 million in the country. To be more precise, the number of destitute people exceeded 260 million in this period, and the figure accounted for 26.9 million in 2010 and then 30 million in 2018, making up 2 % of the population.
8.5 million people were assisted to get out of poverty in the last 5 years. In other words, 37,000 citizens were prevented from economic-social insecurities. The national poverty rate decreased from 10.2 % to 3.1%.
Economists say that China is the first developing country which could dwindle the poverty rate by 7% and they attribute this success top wise agricultural policy.
It was projected to reduce the number of poor people to 10 million in 2018. Chinese national experience in combat with poverty is worth mentioning. Measures are being taken to ensure food security, compulsory education, preliminary medical aid on the basis of the program which as adopted in 2015.
Database of underprivileged people who are in need of social- economic aid is being worked on to reach the aforementioned objectives. Measures for development is established on the basis of data regarding the state of each person, family, and village. 128 thousand villages, 290 thousand families, 90 million citizens have been registered in this system so far. Involvement of elderly and handicapped people and those who suffer from acute diseases in this system is also granted.
The group including 3 members is sent to villages involved in the system to eradicate poverty. 128 thousand such groups have been established across China. The group which comprised of representatives of political party and government resides in the area which has been assigned to develop and the group is required to devise a plan on development of the area. In particular, this group takes control of the equal allocation of land among people. According to Confucius, the land is holy and it is a pride for each family to have their own land. Therefore, young families who are willing to have land are provided with land in the area of the village. And, economists consider that this practice is on contributing factors to the reduction of poverty in China.
Training classes on productive utilization of land are organized for small farmers and they are helped to cooperate with larger manufacturers. Adopting the law that allows farmers to rent their land out to others for the temporary period has contributed to the development.
According to the Ministry of Finance of China, in 2018 $16.7 billion was allocated to program fighting poverty, and this amount was more by 23.2 % compared to 2017. This amount of money is spent on the development of areas.
The group which visits an area prepares a general program having five pivotal tasks for funding.
1) To devise the program on reduction of poverty, increase the involvement of people in the national development process;
2) To provide financial investment, create jobs, prepare suggestions on enhancement of existing infrastructure;
3) To reward a destitute population to run a business and lead a better life;
4) To develop local industry taking main peculiarities of the area into consideration;
5) To foster education and medicine systems, improve sanitary and hygienic conditions in the area.
Provision of government services in remote and secluded areas is being prioritized. Bank and scales of finance services, online purchasing is expanding. High- quality internet and communication networks are provided across China. An effective relationship between citizens and the state can be set not leaving home. Owing to an online purchasing system, hundreds of thousands of people have been provided with jobs and manufacturing and delivery have been boosted.
Village tourism is progressing at an alarming rate in China. The number of Chinese villages that are famous for their unique dishes, other characteristics in the world and nurture a wide range of flowers and plants is increasing. As a result, 100 thousand tourists visited the rural areas in 2016, this number reached 220 thousand in 2017. It contributes to an increase in population budget.
Chinese development experience can be exemplary for developing countries in the world. Protecting farmers’ rights serves as a remedy to prevent poverty which is a factor that obstructs progress.